Background: The incidence of drug resistance against chemical antimicrobial drugs has directed the attention to the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of infections. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Ficus carica extracts against pathogenic bacteria, especially nosocomial infections.
Methods: In this experimental study, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of F. carica were extracted. This study investigated inhibitory effects of plant extracts against pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Proteus mirabilis as well as pathogenic nosocomial including Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa through disk diffusion methods, well diffusion method, and microdilution. Serial dilutions of the extracts were prepared in the range of 50 to 1000 mg/mL to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration.
Results: The aqueous extract of the plant showed higher inhibitory effects against microbial strains compared to the alcoholic extract. The two strains of S. saprophyticus and S. aureus indicated greater susceptibility than extracts (e.g., aqueous, methanol, and ethanol). Statistically, there was a significant difference in the minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous extract growth compared to alcoholic extracts. The aqueous extract had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 133 mg/mL and a minimum bactericidal concentration of 200 mg/mL on gram-positive bacteria of S. saprophyticus and S. aureus, respectively.
Conclusion: The study found F. carica that extract had significant effects on microorganisms of two gram-positive bacteria including S. saprophyticus (62 mm in diameter) and S. aureus (60 mm in diameter), and the bacterium P. aeruginosa revealed the highest resistance against gram-negative bacteria. The extracts also indicated significant effects compared to the antibiotics as a control. Although further research is needed in this regard, F. carica extract can be suggested as a new antimicrobial agent in medical research.