Background: Pemphigus consists of a group of rare autoimmune blistering diseases involving the skin and mucous membranes. Pemphigus pathophysiology is mediated by autoantibodies against two desmosomal cadherins, namely, desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and (Dsg) 3 that are present in the skin and mucosal membranes. The involvement of coding and non-coding RNAs in the pathophysiology of pemphigus has been studied in the literature. MicroRNAs are small RNAs that could also be used as diagnostic biomarkers for some autoimmune diseases. The aim of this research was to explore the potential of this specification of some RNAs to be used as biomarkers for diagnosing pemphigus or its severity. This review discussed RNA expressions in patients with pemphigus.
Methods: A comprehensive search was performed on published studies from 1990 to May 2020 using different search engines including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science.
Results: In general, 335 articles were obtained according to search keywords. Then, 41 relevant studies were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. MiR-338-3p, miR-424-5p, and miR-584-5p were among the miRNAs that were reported to be increased in pemphigus. The C3 mRNA, mRNA of CD36, mRNA of CD163, mRNA of urokinase plasminogen activator (PA), IL23R mRNA, RORγt mRNA, and human leukocyte antigen G1 (HLA-G1) mRNA were coding RNAs that increased in pemphigus in addition to the activity of the mRNA of tissue-type PA while HLA-G2 mRNA decreased in pemphigus.
Conclusion: Overall, this study investigated the role of Mir-338-3p, miR-424-5p, MiR-127, miR-584-5p, and some mRNAs in pemphigus, and it was revealed that some RNAs may be impressive on pemphigus. More studies and clinical assessments need more information about the role of RNAs on pemphigus to obtain a better view of their mechanisms and use them as biomarkers for earlier diagnosis or probable treatment.